Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn








The modern game of Chess is derived from the scheme which follows; whence its name chess, from chequers. And like Tarot, originally the chess pieces were anciently small figures of the Egyptian Gods presenting the operation of the Divine Forces in Nature.

The chess pieces correspond to the Tarot Aces and Honors, thus, for the Chessmen, Tarot card, and Element:

King - Ace - Spirit

Queen - Queen - Water

Knight - King - Fire

Bishop - Knight - Air

Rook or Castle - Knave - Earth.

Pawns, the potencies of the Ace combined with each of the other forces, the servant or viceroy of that force.

The pawns can only move one square at a time, and not two at the first move as in modern chess. The moves of the other pieces excepting the Queen are the same as those of modern chess. The move of the Queen in this scheme is unlike that of any piece in modern chess, for she controls only the 3rd square, from herself, in any direction - perpendicularly, horizontally, or diagonally, and can leap over any intervening piece. From which it results that she can check or control only 16 out of the 64 squares, including the one on which she stands, and these squares to which she can move are all of her own color. Each elemental set of pieces then consists of: King, Queen, Knight, Bishop, Rook, and four pawns.



The Correct Application of the Action of the Moveable Images Representing the Motion of The Ruling Angels Over the Servient Squares is Called The Plays or Raying of the Chequers of The Tablets.

Of the Chess King and the Tarot Ace. The move of this piece is one square every way, and answereth to the action of the Spirit wherever it goeth, commencing and initiating a fresh current. Whence represented by the motion of only one square in any direction and there staying for this purpose before moving onward. So that his action is not hurried, but represents a balanced movement. Yet in his beginning of action is he at first a mute force, and throned upon the water; as in the end of his action he is a life manifested and throned upon the earth. And herein is a mystery of the Lord Aeshoori when enthroned between Isis and Nephthys, thus representing the beginning and end of the action of him in whom end and beginning are not, but rather concealment and then manifestation. Herein is a great mystery of life, for His Thrones are not in the two active elements, seeing that these are his horse and chariot of transition in the passage from concealment unto manifestation. This piece, then, is the symbolizer of the action of the potencies of the crosses on the Servient Squares.

Of the Chess Knight, the Tarot King. The move of this piece is three squares cornerwise every way and representeth the leaping motion of the flickering flame. Wherefore also is he not stopped in his course by a piece or an intervening square, even as Fire seizing on a matter speedily rendereth it transparent. This piece representeth the action of Fire as the Revealer of the strength of the Spirit, even as Hoor is the avenger of Aeshoori. It is a force potent and terrible, the King in the elemental operations.

Thus is opened the locked doors of matter and sheweth forth the treasure hidden therein. Therefore hath all life its beginnings in a Fire Celestial. And the number of squares covered by the move of the King in the midst of the Board (reckoning from the Square on which he standeth, but not including it) is 16 squares of which 8 are checked, and 8 are passed over.

Of the Chess Queen, the Tarot Queen. The move of this piece is unto every third square from her (reckoning the square whereon she standeth as the first) as well cornerwise, as well perpendicular, as horizontal. Thus again covering 16 squares out of a square of 25 squares, of which 8 are threatened, and 8 are passed over. But she threateneth not a piece upon the intervening square of her move. And her movement is as that of the waves of the sea, and (like the Knight) she is not hindered in her motion by a piece on an intervening square. This piece representeth the undulating action of water and of the sea, and she is ascribed unto the Great Goddess Isis, who is the Cherisher of Life.

The Chess Bishop or Fool, the Tarot Knight. The move of this piece is any number of squares cornerwise in any direction even unto the limits of the Tablet. He representeth the keen and swift wind, and he is ascribed unto Aroueris the God. He is stopped by any piece in his way, even as the wind is stopped by a material barrier. He representeth the swift vehicle of the Spirit.

The Chess Castle or Rook, the Tarot Knave. The move of this piece representeth the ponderous and formidable force of earth and its motion is any number of squares in a square direction, perpendicular or horizontal (but not cornerwise) even unto the limits of the boards.

It is ascribed unto Nephthys the Goddess. It representeth the completed action of the Spirit in matter, therefore is its movement square, and also stopped by intervening pieces, yet powerful from the length and breadth of its range.

The Pawns. The four pawns represent certain forces formed by the conjunction of the Spirit with each of the four elements severally, and they are severally ascribed unto Ameshet, Ahephi, Tmoumathph, and Kabexnuv, who stand before the face of Aeshoori. And their movement is but one square forward, perpendicular, and they threaten one square forward diagonal on each side, thus formulatmg the symbol of the Triangle, for they each represent a mixture of three elements under the presidency of the Spirit. Therefore, each is as it were the servant of the God or Goddess, before whom he standeth yet they be all in a manner alike in action, although their Lords be different and each is the servant of the God or Goddess whose element is expressed in his symbol, without its contrary.

For in each set of 3 elements, taken together, two are contrary. Wherefore Ameshet (Water, Fire, Earth) is the servant of Nephthys, whose element Earth is expressed in his attribution without the contrary of Air.

Ahepi (Air, Fire, Water) equals Aroueris.

Tmoumathph (Water, Air, Earth) equals Isis.

Kabexnuv (Fire, Air, Water) equals Hoor.

Below is a further description of the Chess pieces. The pertinent element will be described in bold type, followed by the chess name, title and description.


King, Socharis, Hawk with Osiris head dress.

Knight, Seb, Human head; Goose.

Bishop, Shu, Human head with feather.

Queen, Knousou, Goddess, human with vase.

Castle, Tharpesht, Lioness head with disc.


King, Osiris, God with double crown - three weapons over chest.

Knight, Sebek, Crocodile headed.

Bishop, Hapimon, Fat God with water plants.

Queen, Thouerist, Hippopotamus' body crocodile head.

Castle, Shu, Cow head, disc horns.


King, Kneph, Ram-headed God, crowned.

Knight, Ra, Hawk disc.

Bishop, Toum, Human head, double crown.

Queen, Sati-Ashtoreth, Goddess.

Castle, Anouke, Goddess with crown.


King, Aeshoori, Mummied God, crook, scourge, Phoenix wand, whinged mitre.

Knight, Hoori, Hawk's head. Double mitre.

Bishop, Aroueris, Human, double mitre.

Queen, Isis, Throne head dress.

Castle, Nephthys, Altar head dress.

What follows is a description of the pawns.

Knight's Pawn

Kabexnuv, Mummy, hawk's head.

Bishop's Pawn

Ahephi, Mummy, ape's head.

Queen's Pawn

Tmoumathph, Mummy, dog's head.

Castle's Pawn

Ameshet, Mummy, human head.

What follows is a description of the chessmen with their Tarot, Element and Hebrew letter attribution.


Ace, Spirit, Shin.


Queen, Water, Heh.


King, Fire, Yod.


Knight, Air, Vau.


Knave, Earth, Heh (f).

Differences from normal chess moves:

The pawns move one square only. No taking en passant.

No castling.

The Queen controls 3rd square in any straight line, counting square on which she stands as 1, and may jump over pieces.



Four Players, two against two.

Partners. Fire, Air - Water, Earth.

The First player is the Querent. The first player chooses angle and sets the pieces in order of the Kerubic line, other players follow the first player's setting.

The corner square always has King in addition to other pieces. Both Kings must be checkmated. A pawn on the 8th square becomes the piece of which it isthe vice-regent.



The Ptah used for divination - set by first player on any square in his own Lesser Angle the King to reach and remain on the square of Ptah for one round of game undisturbed and unchecked.

The pieces should (if four players) be colored Red, Black, Blue and Yellow.


The Four Boards of the Rosicrucian game, although different, nevertheless agree in certain particulars. In each board it is convenient to speak of the arrangement of the Lesser Angles asan Upper and Lower Rank - Air and Water forming the Upper Rank, and Earth and Fire the Lower.

It is evident that the columns of the one rank are continuous with those of the other; and in this continuity a certain regular rule is observable. Every column of eight squares in the Upper Rank is continued below by a column of the opposite Element.

Thus the Fiery columns invariably stand on the Watery columns below; the Watery on the Fiery; the Airy on the Earthy; and the Earthy on the Airy.

A different arrangement of the Ranks of Squares is observable, and a difference is seen in this in the Upper and Lower Tablets.

In the Upper Tablets the Kerubic Rank of squares is continuous with the Elemental Rank; and the Cardinal is continuous with the common sign Rank, whereas in the Lower Tablets the various Ranks - Kerubic, Cardinal, etc., are continuous right across the boards.

The diagonal lines or Bishop's move present pecularities. Every Lesser Angle throughout the Tablets has a diagonal line of four squares starting from its prime square; which are allotted respectively to Aries, Gemini, Scorpio and Earth (the non Osiris Squares). From these four squares the Bishops can move one square into a square of Libra, Sagittarius, Taurus or Water, these completing the series of squares in that Lesser Angle in which a Bishop can move. Let us call this the Aries System of diagonal squares.

This diagonal is crossed by another which in the Airy and Watery boards is composed of Cancer, Leo, Virgo and Air Squares, having as subsidiaries, squares of Aquarius, Pisces, Capricorn and Fire. In the Earthy and Fiery board the second series of four form the diagonal, and the first the subsidiaries. Let us call this the Cancer series.

If we now examine the Boards we shall see that the Aries system of any Lesser Angle is joined diagonally to the Aries system of the other three Lesser Angles; and that the Cancer also is similarly joined to every other Cancer system. So that we have two systems of squares; the Aries and the Cancer; of the whole, each containing four squares allotted to every sign it contains. This resembles the black and white systems of squares of the ordinary board; and it is as if we allotted the White to Aries, and the Black to Cancer.



The yellow and red men are so placed that they advance to the attack of the black and the blue respectively by the columns; while the latter advance by the ranks. That is, the actives are shown as a vertical force, while the passives are shown as operating horizontally. Shewing the Cross of life, corresponding to the forces of the Court Cards and the Zodiacal Trumps.

The central squares of the board contain the 16 signs that are allotted to each Lesser Angle. And it is only from these 16 squares that the pieces - except the Rook and the King develop their full influence or defensive force.

The Watery and Airy Boards are counterparts of each other, so far as the arrangement of the signs, etc., of the squares are concerned. And the same is true as regards the Earth and Water Boards. Every Board has its uppermost and lowermost ranks of the passive or female element; and its two central ranks are of the active or male element.

The most striking difference between the Air and Water, and the Earth and Fire boards is in the fact that in the former the ranks are broken; whereas in the latter they are not only continuous across each board, but they are continuous right across both boards when in situ. To this is due the greater balance and eveness seen in the play of the pieces in the lower boards.

The Aries and Cancer systems are composed respectively of naturally allied pairs of Signs.

The Aries System consists of Aries, Gemini, Scorpio and Earth, the non-Osiris Squares and Taurus and Water, Libra and Sagittarius, two natural pairs.

The Cancer system consists of Cancer, Leo; Virgo, Air; Capricorn, Fire; Pisces and Aquarius, for natural pairs.


EARTH of FIRE setting. EARTH Prime Player.



Showing the Queens of Prime Player and his Ally governing all the Squares of the Aries System.

Blue - Watery Queen's move.

Brown - Earthy Queen's move.


The four Queens, the Watery portion of their respective Elements govern between them every Square of every board. But a Queen can never check another Queen for the following reasons.

Each of these pieces govern 16 Squares on the board, four in each Lesser Angle; and they are so placed as to divide the 64 squares equally between them.

It follows, therefore, that there is only one of them that can check the Ptah square.

The 16 squares governed by any Queen are allotted to eight Signs, two Squares of each Sign to every Queen. And the remaining two squares of the same 8 Signs are governed by the friendly Queen.

And the other pair of Queens govern the 32 other Squares similarly. The Queen of the Prime Player always governs the Water, Earth, Taurus, and Scorpio squares of its own lesser Angle, and also of the Lesser Angle of the same rank.

In each of the other two Lesser Angles the Queen of the Prime Player governs the Sagittarius, Gemini, Libra, and Aries squares.

The allied Queen governs the same squares in the opposite ranks of the Lesser Angles. Thus the Prime Player's Queen and his ally together govern the Aries system of squares.

And this is equally true of every Board.



Showing the variation against an active Prime Player.

Blue - Watery Queen's move.

Brown - Earthy Queen's move.

Green - Airy Queen's move.

Red - Fiery Queen's move.

Showing the opposing Queens governing all the Squares of the Cancer System, against a passive prime player.

Fire - Prime Player.

The opposing Queens govern the squares of the Cancer System in a similar manner. But there is a slight variation dependent on the position of the Prime Player. They together govern the Cancer system.

If Water or Earth be the Prime Player, the opposing Queens govern the Air, Fire, Leo and Aquarius squares in their own lesser Angles and in the others of the same rank; while in the other rank they govern Virgo, Pisces, Cancer and Capricorn squares.

If Air or Fire be the Prime Player these two sets of squares are reversed.

The Queen of the Prime Player, and, therefore, of the attacked Lesser Angle, invariably governs therein the passive Kerubic and Elemental squares.

The attacking Queens govern and have for their bases, when active Elements attack - the active Kerubic and Elemental squares.

When passive elements attack, the passive Cardinal and Common Sign squares.

The allied Queen, supporting the defense, has for base the squares corresponding to those of the Prime Player, the passive Kerubic and Elemental squares.



It also falls out that no Passive Queen can, under any circumstances of Board or setting, check an active Kerubic, Cardinal; Common or Elemental square in her own rank of Lesser Angles, nor a similar passive square in the other rank.

It is to be seen that there are certain Signs whereon the Queens are strong and others whereon they are weak.

In defense the Queens, or Watery Forces of each Element, are strong in the Water, Earth, Scorpio and Taurus squares of their respective domains. But in attacking the vulnerable points of the hostile domain depends on which Elements are in operation.

If Water be the Prime Player, and hence the point of attack, the Watery Queen can deliver a strong counter attack on Water, Earth, Scorpio and Taurus of yellow (being in the same rank), and on Aries, Gemini, Sagittarius and Libra of red. While the friendly Water of Earth delivers attack on Aries, Gemini, Sagittarius, and Libra of yellow and Water, Earth, Scorpio, and Taurus of Red.

The Aries System then offers the strong points for the Airy portion of an Elemental Force in defense; and the Cancer System in offence.

The Watery Forces of the Elements never oppose one another, nor clash in their action. Each undulates onwards unaffected by and unaffecting the undulations of the others. Each Queen will swamp opposing force only when that force encroaches on the domain of the particular Queen.

Every Queen has to fear the attack of the opposing Airy forces. But as the latter develop force as the matter proceeds towards ultimation, the Queen when protected is not likely to be destroyed by an opposing and threatening Bishop. The same is true as regards the hostile Knight's attack.

This rule of play is generally sound except in the case of a Queen that can check the Ptah Square; which ability greatly enhances her value.


The Bishops of Partners always govern the same set of squares; and the Bishops of the opposing sides govern opposite sets of squares. These sets are the same as those before mentioned as the Aries and Cancer Systems.

The Bishops of the Prime Player and his ally always govern the Cancer system; and those of the opponent always act in the Aries System.

Hence if the Ptah square be of the Aries system, the airy parts of the opposing forces have great power; but if it be of the Cancer System the opposing aerial forces are impotent in direct attack, and can only be operative secondarily. It follows, too, that the Bishops and Queens are great opponents, since the Bishops operate over the same system as their opposing Queens. The Queens can only touch 16 squares, while the Bishop can touch 32, giving the latter a great superiority in this respect. But the Queen must be considered the equal of the Bishop from the power she possesses to hop over an intervening piece, which would arrest the approach of the Bishop.

And further, the Watery piece is not hampered by the pawns in opening, whereas the Bishop as a rule cannot act at all until at least one pawn has been moved.


The Knights can all reach every square on the Boards, and, therefore, operate over both the Aries and Cancer Systems.

The Knight moves from one of these Systems into the other every time he is played. If he starts on a square of the Aries, his first, third and fifth, etc., moves will bring him on to squares of the Cancer System. And in his first, third or fifth moves he can get to any Cancer system square on the board.

His second, fourth and sixth moves will equally bring him to any Aries System square. There appears to be only one square on the board that requires six moves to reach That is, if the Knight be in one of the corner squares he cannot cross the board diagonally into the opposite corner square in less than six moves.

This results in some peculiarities as shown in the diagrams on the following pages:






The various Signs can be moved as follows:

In the Aries System In the Cancer System
Knight Can Move Knight Can Move
On to Sagittarius 24 times On to Pisces 23 times
On to Aries 23 times On to Cancer 22 times
On to Libra 23 times On to Capricorn 22 times
On to Gemini 22 times On to Leo 21 times
On to Water 20 times On to Virgo 21 times
On to Scorpio 19 times On to Air 21 times
On to Earth 19 times On to Water 20 times
On to Taurus 18 times On to Aquarius 18 times



The various Signs can be moved as follows:

In the Aries System In the Cancer System
Knight can Move Knight can Move
On to Sagittarius 23 times On to Virgo 23 times
On to Libra 23 times On to Cancer 22 times
On to Aries 22 times On to Capricorn 22 times
On to Gemini 22 times On to Pisces 22 times
On to Scorpio 20 times On to Leo 20 times
On to Earth 20 times On to Aquarius 20 times
On to Water 19 times On to Fire 20 times
On to Taurus 19 times On to Air 19 times


The Knight when placed in the corner square can only move to 2 others.

The Knight when placed in two adjacent squares can only move to 3 others.

The Knight when placed in any other outside square can only move to 4 others.

The Knight when placed in the corner square of the second row can only move to 4 others.

The Knight when placed in any other second row square can only move to six others.

But in the central 16 its full power is developed and it can move to eight others. This gives the possible moves of a Knight as 336.

There is a curious difference between the details of these 336 moves in the upper and lower Ranks of Tablets.

The Air Board will be identical with the Watery.

The Earthy Board will be identical with the Fiery.

It will be seen by the annexed table that the squares of certain signs are more often attacked by the Knight than others; for instance in the first column it is shown that the four Sagittarius squares in the Air and Watery Boards are attackable from no less that 24 squares: while the four Taurus squares are only attackable from 18 squares.

When playing from the 16 central squares, each Knight governs 8 squares. These 8 squares, however, are not promiscuously arranged, but follow one rule in the Air and Watery boards, and another in the Earth and Fire.

In the former the 8 squares are allotted always to 6 signs, 2 of which are moved to twice.

Thus from the Earth square of the Water Tablet, the Knight moves to the following Squares: Virgo, Leo, Capricorn 2, Cancer 2, Pisces, Aquarius, duplicating Capricorn and Cancer, and missing Fire and Air of the Cancer System.

Or again from the Aries square, the Knight moves to Pisces, Aquarius, Air 2, Capricorn 2, Virgo and Leo, duplicating Air and Capricorn, and missing Fire and Cancer.

But in the Earth and Fire Boards it is different. There the Knight only moves to squares of 5 signs of its system, triplicating 1, duplicating 1, and missing three.

Thus from the Earth square the Knight moves to: Pisces 2, Capricorn, Cancer 3, Leo, and Aquarius; triplicating Cancer, duplicating Pisces, missing Fire, Air, and Virgo.

And from the Aries Square: Aquarius 2, Pisces, Virgo 3, and Air, Fire; triplicating Virgo, duplicating Aquarius, missing Cancer,Capricorn, and Leo.



Green shows the Knight's moves from the Earth square of the central Sixteen. Crimson shows move from Aries Square.


Green as before.

Crimson as before.

From the central 16 squares an attack is made on the Cardinal and Common Signs 10 times each; but on the Kerubic and Elemental Squares 6 times each. This is true of every board, and the reason is to be found in the position of the ranks; which in every case are disposed so that the uppermost and lowermost ranks are Kerubic and Elemental, while the two central ranks are Cardinal and Common. The same reason will explain the peculiarities of the curious difference between the columns ìNo. of times the Sign is duplicated,î ìtriplicated,î and ìmissed.î

This analysis of the moves from the 16 central squares seems to show a certain steadiness in the Earth and Fire Tablets, and is less seen in the Water and Air.

The same increase of steadiness is shown in the tablet at the foot of the diagrams on the Boards.

In Air and Water the extreme numbers are 24 and 18.

In Earth and Fire the extreme numbers are 23 and 19.

The moves of the Knight referred in a similar way to the remaining 48 squares show the same point, a greater steadiness in the Earth and Fire boards than in the Water and Air. And this difference is seen in the outer row and not in the inner one.

The 28 outside squares are attacked by 96 possible moves.

The 20 next squares are attacked by 112 possible moves.

The 16 central squares are attacked by 128 possible moves.

The Knights or Fiery forces of the Elements meet and clash violently in all parts, and are strong in attack against everything and everywhere. Their moves, like Fire pass un arrested through the other elements in irregular courses like the lambent flame, leaping both diagonally and square-wise at every move. They contain the potential forces of the other pieces. Their force is similar to the Tarot King, and to Chokmah. They are the ABBA forces, and with the Queens represent the Briatic forces of the scheme.

The Queens or Watery forces of the Elements never clash with one another, but ever undulate onwards each in its own course unaffected by opposing or crossing waves. But the Watery forces only move in their respective pre-ordained courses; they cannot leave their limits and enter upon the domain of others. Water, like Fire, is un arrested and undulating, and like Air and Earth it can act diagonally or square-wise containing the potential force of Air and Earth. They are the Queen of the Tarot, and Binah. They are the AIMAH, and are of Briah.

The Bishops are subtle and sharp, moving rapidly, but are easily arrested in their course. They clash not with opposing Bishops, and friendly Airs support each other in attack and defense; where the active Airs whirl the passive cannot come. They are the forces of the Knights, and of Yetzirah, the SON.

The Rooks are the heavy resisting powers of the Knave, mighty indeed in action when preceded by the action of the other three. That is, when in any matter the forces of Fire, Water, and Air have been absorbed and equilibrated, i.e., removed from the board, the mighty powers of the Castles come into play. But woe to him who too early calls these ponderous forces forth.



This piece moves through columns as through ranks. He is able, therefore, to reach every square on the board, and is very powerful. But his movement is very ponderous, and it is a piece that is not moved many times in a game unless the forces of the other Elements have been absorbed in its working out. While the Aleph, Mem, and Shin forces are in full operation the Rook is easily attacked and with difficulty defended, unless he remain quiet, and act as a firm basis of support and defense to the side. If he however, make the mistake of entering early into action he is nearly sure to fall a prey to the more subtle forces whose proper sphere is attack.

If the more subtle forces do not bring about a solution of the question, and the matter has to be fought out to the bitter end, that is, if the Yetziratic and Briatic forces are absorbed and balanced in the matter, then do the ponderous forces of Assiah, the Knave, engage in powerful combat.



The Kings of Water and Earth stand in squares of the Aries System. The Kings of Air and Fire stand in squares of the Cancer System.

If Water or Earth be the Prime player the opposing Bishops attack the squares on which they stand. If Air or Fire be the Prime Player they do not.

The King is the Ace, and the King of the Prime Player being the piece on whose action that of all the forces depends, it is this King that, at every move he makes, causes a new whirl to be set up in the other forces.



See to which system the Ptah square belongs. Because if it be a square of the Aries system the attack of the opposing Queens is insignificant, while that of the Bishops is strong. In such a case the number of pieces is 6; 2 Bishops, 2 Knights and 2 Rooks. That is, in these matters the Airy attack is strong, and the Watery weak.

If the Ptah be on a square of the Cancer System, one opposing Queen directly attacks this Square, but the Bishops do not. In this case the number of attacking pieces is 5; one Queen, 2 Knights, and 2 Rooks. That is, in these matters the Airy attack is insignificant, while the Watery is strong.

If an opposing Queen can attack the Ptah, the defense should note well which Queen it is and should remember that this fact greatly enhances her power. He should thereupon not hesitate to exchange what might otherwise be considered a more powerful piece for her. She should certainly be exchanged for a Bishop, and probably also for a Knight.



Aries - Emperor. The Chief Among the Mighty.
Taurus - Hierophant. Magus of the Eternal Gods.
Gemini - Lovers. Oracles of the Mighty Gods.
Libra - Justice. Holder of the Balance.
Scorpio - Death. Child of the Great Transformer.
Sagittarius - Temperance. Daughter of the Reconciler.
Saturn - Universe. Great One of the Night of Time.
Water - Hanged Man. Spirit of the Mighty Waters.





Cancer - Chariot. Child of the Powers of the Waters.
Leo - Strength. Daughter of the Flaming Sword.
Virgo - Prudence. Prophet of the Gods.
Capricorn - Devil. Lord of the Gates of Matter.
Aquarius - Star. Daughter of the Firmament.
Pisces - Moon. Ruler of the Flux and Reflux.
Fire - Judgment. Spirit of the Primal Fire.
Air - Fool. Spirit of Ether.

The YHVH order of the pieces corresponds with their respective offensive and defensive powers, thus:

Most offensive - Knight.

More offensive - Queen, than defensive.

More defensive - Bishop, than offensive.

The Rook, most defensive, i.e., in a general sense. Because every piece assumes both roles according to circumstances.

* Email
Copyright 1888-2023, All Rights Reserved
More about us on…